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Voyage dans le Jura en 1800


Pour vous faire une idée du Jura, de ses villes ou villages et de la vie de ses habitants à l'époque de la Révolution Française il y a plus de deux siècles, procurez vous gratuitement ce livre sur Gallica

essentes
ancelles, tavaillons, essentes, bardeaux
Voyage dans le Jura de Joseph-Marie Lequinio (1755-1814) – Caillot, Debray et Fuschs (Paris) – 1800 en deux volumes.


Champagnole
Champagnole moderne à toits de tuiles

Vous y lirez entre autres récits les circonstances et les dégâts de l'incendie de Champagnole le 8 floréal de l'an Vi à midi (c.-à-d. le 27 avril 1798). Vous saurez que les toitures étaient faites de tavaillons (essentes) posés et retenus par de grosses pierres.

Dans le Jura, les gros tavaillons (les moins onéreux) ne duraient que six ans alors que les fins vivaient vingt ans.
(Pour comparaison, dans d'autres régions, les bardeaux de chataîgner résistent un siècle : la fabrication des bardeaux).

L'auteur évoque aussi la manufacture du "citoyen Muller", dix-sept roues mues par l'eau faisaient tourner les machines auxquelles cent cinquante ouvriers étaient employés journellement...
C'était une filerie de fer, on y fabriquait du fil-de-fer de différentes espèces appelé « fil d'archal » et des « clous de Paris ».

portail
forges de Syam

Il y a quelques années encore, on pouvait visiter, pas très loin de Champagnole, les forges de Syam qui étaient des fileries d'aciers spéciaux.
Ces forges ont fermé en mars 2009, faute de repreneur.

Note : Le fil d'archal tirerait son nom de celui d'un certain Richard Archal, premier inventeur d'une filière pour métaux. Une autre explication étymologique relie archal à « aurichalcum », un alliage de cuivre de couleur or, mentionné dans des écrits de l'antiquité grecque (légende d'Atlantis en particulier).